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Ireland is ditching peat for energy from wind.

  • Author:hopely
  • Release on:2017-09-11
The paper suggests that when capital punishment was an option, juries were often reluctant to convict at all.

They may have felt it was a little rum to send someone to the gallows for stealing a cow, so they downgraded the charge or acquitted the defendant.
The authors find that juries were particularly reluctant to convict women.
Once death was off the table, however, jurors could convict with a clearer conscience.

The paper finds that the abolition of capital punishment increased the chance of conviction for all crimes by around eight percentage points, with especially large effects for violent offences.

The temporary halt of penal transportation during the American war of independence had a somewhat smaller effect on the likelihood to convict, suggesting that juries considered living in America to be a prospect slightly less awful than death.
Past research has found that would-be criminals are more put off by an increased likelihood of conviction than they are by more severe sentences.
If so, then getting rid of the most brutal punishments could make criminal-justice systems work better.
If the third of Britons who would like the death penalty reintroduced got their way, the country might inadvertently end up letting more criminals walk free.
The renewable resource now provides a quarter of the electricity Ireland consumes every year.

Eirgrid, a state-owned company which manages the grid in both Northern Ireland and the Republic, says much more wind capacity is in the planning stages.
Wind is difficult to manage because it is unpredictable, even on the blustery shores of western Ireland.
Since wind turbines do not turn consistently, the grid must be carefully tuned to keep it stable.
One way around this is to export excess power that takes the grid beyond the point of stability.

This is the trick used by Denmark, amongst others, whose grid is linked to those of Germany, Sweden and Norway.

Ireland already has two connections to Britain.
At night, these cables provide hundreds of megawatts of Irish wind power to its neighbour.
Eirgrid is planning a cable to continental Europe.
A report from SEAI, Ireland's energy authority, suggests that the island could generate enough wind electricity to match domestic demand by 2030, with more left over to export.
That would be good timing.
Bord na Móna, the body responsible for developing Ireland's peatlands, has said it will stop extracting peat for electricity by the same year.

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